New Year's Day
Jan.1st on the C.E. Calendar is New Year's Day. The 1st Plenary Session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference unanimously decided on Sept. 27, 1949 on the adoption of the Common (Christian) Era for the People's Republic of China and the abrogation of the Republic of China Era. The Central People's Government on Dec. 23 of the same year made New Year's Day a public holiday.
Feb. 7 Great Strike
To commemorate the strike of Jinghan (Peking-Hankou) Railway workers in February 1923, commemorative activities have been held on Feb. 7 every year, since the founding of the People's Republic of China.
Jinghan Railway workers met on Feb. 1, 1923 to inaugurate the Federation of Jinghan Railway Workers' Unions under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party. Warlord Wu Peifu dispatched soldiers to wreck the meeting place. The railway workers' unions decided to hold a general strike on Feb. 4. Wu Peifu, supported by imperialists, ordered on Feb. 7 his subordinate Xiao Yaonan to suppress the workers in Zhengzhou, Jiang'an, Changxindian and other places. Lin Xiangqian, Chinese Communist Party member, chairman of Jiang'an Branch of Federation of Jinghan Railway Workers' Unions, Shi Yang, Chinese Communist Party member, legal adviser to Hubei Federation of Trade Unions and the Federation of Jinghan Railway Workers' Unions, and scores of other workers were killed, and over 1,000 workers dismissed. It is known as Feb. 7 Tragic Incident. This was a great movement in which the Chinese workers for the first time shifted from economic struggle to political struggle.
International Working Women's Day (Mar. 8)
To commemorate the strike and demonstration held by women of Chicago, U. S. A. for freedom and equality, the Second International Socialist Women's Conference adopted in August 1910 a resolution to make Mar. 8 International Women's Day as proposed by Clara Zetkin, the great German female revolutionary. On Dec. 23, 1949, the Government Administration Council of the Chinese Central People's Government proclaimed Mar. 8 as Women's Day. On Mar. 8 women have a half-day off.
Tree Planting Day (Mar.12)
On Feb. 23, 1979, the Standing Committee of the 5th National People's Congress decided to make Mar. 12 China's Tree Planting Day in order to mobilize people of all nationalities throughout the country to plant trees with a view to speeding up afforestation.
International Labor Day (May 1)
Two hundred thousand workers in Chicago, U.S.A. held a general strike on May 1, 1886 to demand an eight hour work day. The striking workers were brutally suppressed by the ruling class and much blood was shed by the workers. On Jul. 14, 1889, the Second International convened its inauguration meeting, and decided to call on the world proletariat to take unified action and hold a grand demonstration in commemoration of the fallen workers, demonstrating the international solidarity of the workers and upholding the demand for an eight hour work day. A resolution was made to proclaim May 1 as the International Labor Day. The government of the PRC announced on Dec. 23, 1949 that May 1 is honored as the International Labor Day and a public holiday.
Chinese Youth Day (May 4)
The Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government of the PRC announced on Dec. 23, 1949 that May 4 is the Chinese Youth Day to commemorate the just action of the Beijing patriotic students in opposing the Paris Peace Treaty aimed at partitioning China and in abrogating the 21-Article Treaty imposed on China by Japan.
International Children's Day (Jun. 1)
The International Democratic Women's Federation held its executive committee meeting in Moscow in November 1949. At the meeting, Jun. 1 was decided officially as International Children's Day with the aim for protecting the rights of children all over the world. The Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government of the PRC announced on Dec. 23, 1949 that Jun. 1 was made Children's Day.
Anniversary Day of Founding of Chinese Communist Party
The First Congress of the Chinese Communist Party was held in Shanghai from Jul. 23 to 31, 1921. At the congress the Chinese Communist Party was founded. Jul. 1 was made the day to commemorate the founding anniversary. This decision was first known in a circular issued on Jun. 30, 1941 by the Central Committee of the CPC, called Instructions on the 24th Anniversary of the Founding of the Chinese Communist Party and the 4th Anniversary of the Resistance War. Thereforth, Jul. 1 has been celebrated as the birthday of the Party.
July 7 Lugou Bridge Incident
Japanese invading army bombarded Wanping County near Beijing City proper and the Lugou Bridge (Known in the West as the Marco Polo Bridge) on Jul. 7, and launched the long-premeditated overall war of aggression against China. Hereafter Jul. 7 became the day for marking the incident. Army Day (Aug. 1)
Shortly after the founding of the PRC, the Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government decided on Dec. 23, 1949 to make Aug. 1 the Army Day for commemorating the armed uprising in Nanchang under the leadership of Zhou Enlai, He Long, Ye Ting, Zhu De and others on Aug. 1, 1927.
Victory over Japan Day
On Aug. 15, 1945, Japan declared unconditional surrender. The signing ceremony for Japan's surrender was held on board the flagship, USS Missouri, in Tokyo Gulf on Sept. 2 the same year. Sept. 3 was made the day for commemorating the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japan.
On Jan. 21, 1985, the 9th Session of the Standing Committee of the 6th National People's Congress decided to make Sept. 10 Teachers' Day.
Sept. 18 Incident
On Sept. 18, 1931, the Japanese Guandong Army stationed in Northeast China suddenly bombarded Shenyang under the excuse of explosions occurred along the South Manchuria Railway. The whole world was shocked by the Sept. 18 Incident. In January 1932, all the three provinces in Northeast China were occupied by the Japanese army. To remind the Chinese people of the national humiliation, Sept. 18 was decided as the day to mark the incident.
National Day (Oct. 1)
The Central People's Government of the PRC was founded in Beijing, the capital, on Oct. 1, 1949. On Dec. 2 the same year, the Central People's Government decided to make Oct. 1 the National Day.
Revolution of 1911 (Oct. 10)
The Wuchang Uprising led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen on Oct. 10, 1911 succeeded eventually in overthrowing the Qing Dynasty which had ruled China for more than 200 years, and thereby bringing an end to the autocratic monarchic system prevailing in China for more than 2, 000 years. Oct. 10 was made the day for commemorating the uprising.